EEG (electroencephalography) biofeedback- Also known as neurofeedback, involves putting electrodes on the scalp which are connected then to an amplifier which is connected to a computer. The location for placement of these electrodes is chosen by the clinician based on the assessment. Through measuring the brain activity, feedback in the form of sound or images, a video game or DVD playing, or the person's EEG with an offset, is given as feedback.
The feedback in operant conditioning is based on what activity the brain is producing and if it meets the criteria set by the clinician. The criteria set is related to getting a reward for a person a percentage of the time that will keep them engaged and learning towards how to keep the reward playing. Types of operant conditioning neurofeedback are: alpha/theta training, SMR training, and coherence training. This is based on an entrainment model.
The LENS (Low Energy Neurofeedback System)- measures the dominant frequency of the person’s EEG @ 1 or 2 cortical sites at a time and then utilizing an algorithm that adds an offset to that, pulls the energy away from where it is dominant and sometimes stuck. The LENS nudges the nervous system out of its parking place and allows the brain to re-organize itself. The LENS is a passive treatment in as much as a person is not using voluntary effort to move their brainwaves. The hook-up of electrodes is minimal and each site’s treatment takes only 1 second to 1 minute. The LENS utilizes a dis-entrainment model. Traditional neurofeedback utilizes an entrainment model. The two can be complementary. For some, the dis-entrainment translates as a breaking up of patterns enough so that their getting back to living their lives the way they want to is all the entrainment they need.